Location of Vim Syntax files for different programming languages

If you use Vim for programming, you find that by default based on the type of the file, Vim enables syntax highlighting. That is if your file name is myfile.c or myfile.C, Vim enables Syntax highlighting for the C language. Likewise, it enables syntax highlighting for a large number of well known (programming) languages. If you are wondering where you can find these syntax highlighting files, you can check the following directory.

Currently in my system, it is located in the following directory

/usr/share/vim/vim73/syntax

Let’s check the directory contents

$ ls /usr/share/vim/vim73/syntax
...
config.vim        idl.vim           plp.vim          tf.vim
conf.vim          indent.vim        plsql.vim        tidy.vim
context.vim       inform.vim        pod.vim          tilde.vim
cpp.vim           initex.vim        postscr.vim      tli.vim
crm.vim           initng.vim        po.vim           tpp.vim
crontab.vim       inittab.vim       povini.vim       trasys.vim
....

Thus for every programming language, they have an associated .vim file. For C++, there is cpp.vim. For crontab entries (/etc/cron.d), there is crontab.vim

Since, I am using Vim 7.3, the above syntax files are located in the vim73. But if you are looking for future versions, you can run the following command to get the location

$ find /usr/share/vim/ -iname "*syntax"
/usr/share/vim/vim73/syntax
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Detailed listing of a directory/file with ls -l

ls is used to see the contents of a file. With the option -l, one can see the file/directory permissions for owner,group and others. This option is also useful to see information like the owner and group owner and size of the file.

let’s take a simple example. Seeing the detailed listing of a /usr/local/share/man/man1


$ ls -l /usr/share/man/man1/* | head -20

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   1010 2008-08-20 19:05 2vcard.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    592 2010-06-25 18:20 411toppm.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    292 2010-07-21 21:45 a2j_control.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    413 2010-07-21 21:45 a2jmidi_bridge.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    424 2010-07-21 21:45 a2jmidid.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   4656 2010-07-12 17:11 a2p.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   5976 2010-08-16 16:25 a2ping.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   1356 2009-04-29 02:17 a2psj.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    798 2010-03-05 07:47 aalib-config.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   2608 2010-11-19 02:50 ab.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   1024 2010-07-02 16:05 ac3dec.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root     20 2009-11-07 04:28 ace.1p.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  11985 2010-01-04 20:33 ack-grep.1p.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   1136 2010-02-02 06:29 aclocal-1.11.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   1068 2010-06-20 08:14 acl.php.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   1380 2010-10-22 03:46 aconnect.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    738 2005-10-25 15:32 aconnectgui.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    697 2009-12-25 13:56 acpi_available.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    367 2010-06-23 08:06 acpi_fakekey.1.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    823 2010-05-15 17:39 acyclic.1.gz

Since the above directory is a big directory, we used head to filter out first 20 lines. This example is going to be used in various tutorials like Vim Visual Block.

Vim: Visual Block Tutorial

Vim has various modes like the normal mode, insert mode and visual mode. In the visual mode, you can perform various actions as you can do with other GUI based text editors and mouse. One of the best features of Visual mode in Vim is the ability to select text for performing various actions like copying, deleting and changing the case (upper case to lower case).

  1. Introduction to Vim Visual Mode
  2. Vim Visual block
  3. Example used for explaining the Visual mode

Vim Colorschemes Tutorial

Vim has a number of colorshemes like default, blue, darkblue, desert. A colorscheme describes what color you want to give to the background of your vim editor, the color of the text, and various colors for the different types of programs or text files.

  1. How to find the available vim colorschemes?
  2. How to set colorscheme in VIM?
  3. How to change VIM colorschme permanently?
  4. How to set default colorscheme in VIM?
  5. A sample vim colorsheme.

How to set a colorscheme in VIM?

After finding out the available colorscheme of VIM in your machine, the next step is to set a colorscheme.

Let’s assume that you have the following colorschemes available

  1. darkblue
  2. blue
  3. dessert

Now to set the colorscheme to blue


$ vim filename.txt

Enter the following in Normal mode


:colorscheme blue

As you can see the syntax for setting a colorscheme is


:colorscheme scheme_name

Note that if you enter a scheme name which is not available, you will get the following error


:colorscheme abc

E185: Cannot find color scheme abc

You can change a colorscheme using the same command.

Note that when you change a colorscheme by the above method, it is for a particular session only. Once you exit, you will lose the change. Read How to change a VIM colorschme permanently?

How to change VIM colorschme permanently?

You can temporarily change a colorscheme of vim using the following method.


:colorscheme darkblue

But this change will be transient and as soon as you exit from vim, you will lose the setting. In order to save this setting permanently, you must add this to your .vimrc file


$ vim ~/.vimrc

Add the following lines to the end of the file


colorscheme blue

Now whenever you open vim, you will see the blue colorscheme. You can use different available vim colorscheme like dessert,darkblue